Harmonious Coexistence of Man and Nature

As one of the most prestigious writers, D. H. Lawrence composed a series of works in literature and art in his short life. The philosophic implications embedded in his works enlarge the study area of literary scholars.The Rainbow and Women in Love are considered as the two greatest novels in Lawrence’s compositions. The life of the Brangwens is the thread in both. The former describes the life and spiritual development of three generations in the family; the latter puts focus on Ursula Brangwen and Gudrun Brangwen’s love affairs. Despite of the different writing styles and tones, both of the novels present a theme: the conflict between industrialization and nature. For the writer, industrialization isolated human beings from nature, depriving their nature and vitality. To free themselves from the oppression of industrialization and reconstruct the vitality in human nature, human beings should reassess their own position in the universe, and reestablish the harmonious relationship with nature.This thesis attempts at exploring Lawrence’s ecological awareness and ecological concern in The Rainbow and Women in Love, emphasizing the significance of Lawrence’s ecological ideas on modern ecological issues.The thesis consists of five chapters:Chapter One makes a brief introduction to Lawrence’s literary career and critical reception of his works, stating the theoretical basis and structure of the thesis.Chapter Two is to trace the formation of Lawrence’s ecological thoughts to the times he lived in and to his heredity of ecological ideas from ancestral writers. With such influence, Lawrence displayed his ecological awareness in his various writings.Chapter Three probes into the description of nature presented in Lawrence’s two major novels, analyses the spirit of nature, discusses the influence of such spirit on man, then points out Lawrence adopting the holistic view on man-and-nature relationship, holding the belief of harmonious coexistence of man and nature.Chapter Four explores the cause and effects of ecological disaster in human society, displaying Lawrence’s Philosophy of anti-anthropocentrism and anti-materialism. In his view, industrialization destroys the harmonious relationship between man and nature, which leads to the alienation of human nature; the only way of salvation for human beings is to break out of the shell of human society to reestablish the harmonious relationship with nature.Chapter Five makes a conclusion of the whole thesis, restating the importance of ecocriticism in the modern world, Lawrence’s ecological beliefs in harmonious coexistence of man and nature, and significance of his ecological thoughts for finding solutions to present ecological crises.

Posted in Philosophy and Humanities | Tagged , , , , | Comments Off

Cohesion and Cohesion Errors in Chinese English Majors’ Argumentative Essays Across Grade Levels

The thesis investigates (1) the trend of the change in using cohesive devices in Chinese English majors’ English argumentative essays across four grade levels; (2) the trend of the change of cohesion errors in students’ compositions across four grade levels and the main types of cohesion errors in English majors’ argumentative essay.In this study, the cohesive devices based on Halliday and Hasan (1976)’ classification in80 compositions written by English majors are analyzed to see if the frequencies of cohesive devices increase with the increase of students’ grade levels. The developmental trend of cohesion errors is also investigated. The results do not show the same trend of development on different types of cohesive devices. Some grammatical devices that are comparatively used more in spoken discourse show the trend of decrease with the increase of grade levels. And some devices show the trend of increase across the four grade levels, like the lexical cohesion. The decrease of the spoken-style cohesive devices and the increase of lexical cohesive devices, especially complex lexical cohesive devices, show that in writing with the change of grade levels, the students’ consciousness of style increases. The cohesion errors show the trend of decline from the first grade to the fourth grade. This corresponds to our common sense in language learning: the longer one learns, the fewer errors one makes. Yet only the reference errors and lexical errors show significant trend of decline with the increase of grade levels. The substitution and ellipsis errors and conjunction errors do not show the trend of decline, especially conjunction errors. This might result from the complexity of the conjunctions. The qualitative study of cohesion errors summarizes the types of cohesion errors that are often made by English majors’.The paper explores the developmental trend of the use of cohesive devices and of cohesion errors. It suggests that teachers and students should pay attention to some cohesive devices that characterize the spoke style. The quantitative study of cohesion errors show that the conjunctives are hard for students to command. Therefore English teachers should make more efforts in teaching students how use conjunctions. Moreover, the qualitative study on the main types of cohesion errors in English majors’ writing calls for teachers’ and students’ attention on these kinds of cohesion errors so as to improve the coherence in students’ English writings.

Posted in Language | Tagged , , , , , | Comments Off

The Development of Chinese Poetic Language Seen Through the Translation of Tagore’s Poems

During the period of May 4th Movement when the Vernacular Movement was being carried out, foreign poetry was introduced and translated into China, and the translating method of Europeanization was employed. In the cultural movement of that time, Europeanization was a controversial phenomenon not to be ignored. There were two totally different views. Some scholars held the idea that Europeanization was positive enough to enrich the vocabulary and grammar of the Chinese language, and contributed a great number of expressions to it; while others harshly criticized the Europeanized grammar and vocabulary, insisting that they had destroyed the original order and aesthetic feelings of Chinese.Nowadays, some people still hold a one-sided view that Europeanization has done harm to Chinese language and resulted in loss of its original beauty and elegance. They also think that Europeanization has deprived the Chinese language of its individuality, emotive force as well as its unique glamour. This thesis holds a point which is to some extent opposite to these ideas and attempts to give detailed interpretation to this issue, with some data drawn from the translation of Tagore’s prose poems in the period of May 4th Movement.The Basic theory employed in this thesis is language contact theory. Language contact may cause structural change, such as borrowing of some exotic elements or syntactic constructions. Through language contact, one party would take in some elements of the other party to enrich and improve its own expressive structures. In the cultural movement of 20th century, there was more indirect contact between Chinese and English in the form of written literature, which led many to believe that the western modes of thinking and their precise grammatical system characterizing the English language were brought into Chinese. In that process of language contact, the translation activity was the primary channel. Many translators carried over the constructions of the language they were translating into their translated versions, and then into the writing in Chinese language. Therefore, to some extent, translation can be regarded as a kind of language contact which enriched Chinese expressions and pushed forward the vernacular movement at that time.New verse may not develop fast without taking in new ingredients from foreign prose poems. Based on the language contact theory, this thesis makes a case study on the translation of Tagore’s prose poem in the period of May 4th Movement. A quantified statistics is carried out with four primary works of poetry translated by Bing Xin and Zheng Zhenduo, namely, Stray Birds, The Gardener, The Crescent Moon and Gitanjali: Song Offerings. Three typical syntactic structures—word order change, the passive voice with”被”and the differentiation of the third pronoun”he”are elaborated successively.An important finding would be made that many syntactic structures and expressive methods are Europeanized through the course of the translation, and even later make their appearance in the Chinese new verse language. As time goes on, this kind of exotic usage has made contribution to the development of Chinese language. We might say that the translation of prose poems and the employment of Europeanization were of great importance at that time and remains so today.Through the case study of Tagore’poem translation, this thesis reaches a conclusion that language researchers should do justice to Europeanization as well as to the translation of foreign poetry of that time , and thus pay more attention to their positive significance.

Posted in Language | Tagged , , , | Comments Off

Review of Geographic Names of Two Cities, Cheng Fang, Four Suburbs in Sui Dynasty

Luoyang and Chang’an were Dongjing and Xijing in Sui dynasty and Tang dynasty, they affects importantly in the Social economy life at that time, their scale is magnificent, layout is entire, that is a miracle in human being history. Since the ancient times, Luoyang and Chang’an always attract the scholar to research. They restore ancient city plain appearance as far as possible, it makes us see many aspects, it helps us to research Sui dynasty and Tang dynasty histories, it makes Chinese culture prosper and develops today city tourism and even urban planning. The author uses the inscription material, discusses Sui dynasty, and try to research Luoyang and Chang’an by new theory. The author has done the following job :1. In the Basic of using predecessor; research result sufficiently, the author makes further confirming and discussing to their achievement according to ancient and modem maps. The main body of the report textual criticism four suburbs, and the workshop linings inside the city-wall appearing in the epitaph, we also make sure where they were. 2. Comparing the transmission relation of the place names Sui dynasty and Tang dynasty. 3. We browse large amount data to confirm the location of the new appearing place names. The place names having no way to engage in textual research, spread them out for further researching. 4. We sums up the researching contents with the diagram. 5. Analyse benefit and limitation of making use of inscription on tomb tablet, hoping have better researching ways.Introduction: Luoyang and Chang’an are Sui dynasty and Tang dynasty, two grand unifications dynasties society politics aspect life in miniature. Researching them, it’s significance in the history and nowadays. The prehominids have done many study to Luoyang and Chang’an. with society progress, use the new data desolve the past problem,《Sui dynasty inscription on the back of a memorial tablet》will come out,I resd it, and fully uses the predecessor research results, use Dongjing and Xijing as main content, research Sui dynasty place names of four suburbs of that two cities.Xijing: Zhuque gate is the Daxin city’s demarcation line, they belong to Daxin town and Changan town separately. The paper has two parts, including township, fang,li. Village, yuan and other six parts researches. we find a lot of new place names: two townships, three fang li in daxin town, two townships, tweleves fang li and one village in Changan town. We can make sure the place of eleven townships, nine fang li, one village in Daxin town and seven townships, eighteen fang li, one village in chang an town. We have no way to make sure the location of one township, one fang li in Daxing town, three townships, two fang li in Chang an town. our achievement is small, we still need supplement unceasingly new materials to peep its original condition.Dongjing: The Luoyang layout is different from Changan. The imperial city and palace wallis in the west of capital city, imperial gardens is in its west. That is different from xijing. According to《The Sui and Tang dynasties two cities research》, in Sui and Tang dynasties long Xia Men and Tang Wei machine transpose Hashimoto west side the abundant metropolis a street, therefore Sui generation of Henan, Luoyang two counties take this street as the dividing lines, devide two parts of place names of Henan town and place names of Luoyang town, including township, fang,li, Village, yuan and other five parts researches. Because the east capital city constructs in the great undertaking two years in Han dynasty and Wei dynasty 18 miles in the west, and the geographic name and the position have big changes before and after founding the capital. It makes some difficulties in comforming. Mang mountain is geomancy of treasure trove in the Luoyang, and most of the inscriptions unearth here. And it causes to concentrate unearthed in north, the textualresearch geographic name also by north primarily. Many inscriptions only generally record burying the north of Mang mountain, the south of Mang mountain, so the ancient and modern geographic names verify with difficulty. Discovering the massive new geographic names, we also have very many geographic names unable to textually research at the same time, even do not know which town they belong. We only expect have more new data and better theory methods for researching.

Posted in China History | Tagged , , , | Comments Off

Relegated All Life, But Singing Loudly in the Idly-Staying in Luoyang

The dissertation puts Liu Yuxi, a famous Tang Dynasty writer, into the specific time background of Mid Tang Dynasty. First describing his frustration in politics and then focusing on the old life of Liu, the thesis, combining Luoyang, which influences a lot to Liu for its important status about politics, economy and culture in the Tang Dynasty, mainly divides into four parts to elaborate Liu Yuxi’s idly occupies life in Luoyang and his prose creation:Part I: Through the outline to the prose-researching present situation of Liu, clarify that the life in Luoyang occupys the pivotal position to Liu and his prose study. Meanwhile, in the inspiration of regional studies about Lianzhou and Langzhou, the author intend to analyze Liu Yuxi’s late occupies and his prose creation in Luoyang.Part II: Explain the original relationship with Luoyang and Liu Yuxi. First, through describing of the general picture of Luoyang– the east capital of Tang Dynasty, to determine the time background as well as the geographical environment where Liu lives in his old, then according to the view of Fu Xuancong, choose Liu’s native place is Luoyang, from four views those are PengCheng, ZhongShan, LuLing and LuoYang, on the base of predecessor’s research results. Second, according to various historical data and literary works, proof that Liu’s housing in is in the north of Huairen Fang, that is now, it’s in the north area of Louzi village of Lilou town, the city of Luoyang. Third, focus on the theme of comfortably– staying in Luoyang, narrate Liu’s last 16 years life through the Earlier and Later period.Part III: Analyze and studies the prose creation in Luoyang of Liu Yuxi. First of all, refer to the Liu Yuxi Quanji Biannian Jiaozhu noted by Tao Min and Tai Hongyu, the author sum up there are 24 articles identified, belonging to Liu’s old-life prose writing in Luoyang. Next, analyze the gradually changed path of that creation content, which changes from the expression of aspiration in the repeated relegation and positive activities, to the singing of the old but vigorous and never changed mind. Finally, discuss the created style of Liu’s Luoyang prose. Through carefully study, obtain the style contains three parts: First, it’s the smoothly writing style with clear will and following times; Second, it’s the scattered and organized structural style mixed prose and verse; Third, it’s the exquisite language style with succinct, solemn, and elegant words.Part IV: Elaborate the profound influence of Liu Yuxi’s prose to later generations. Liu Yuxi is a versatile writer, whose prose, not only in Philosophy, but also in politics, as well as in the literature aspect, produces enormous influence to the descendants, such as Wang Anshi, Su Shi, Liu Ji and so on.

Posted in Chinese Literature | Tagged , , , , , | Comments Off

Study on the Group Psychological Training on Aggression of Violent Juvenile Criminals

The first part has investigated the aggression of juvenile criminals and adolenscent students employing a survey and IAT test. The result suggests that contrast of the nonviolent juvenile criminals and normal students, the ability of self-control of violent juvenile criminals is singnificantly weaker, but there is no significant difference on other aspects. The anger factor on expicit aggression of nonviolent juvenile crimianls is significantly higher than normal students. The verbal aggression on explicit aggression and the ability of perspective taking of adolescence in single parenthood family is significantly higher than those in complete family. The explicit aggression has a significant negative correlation with perspective taking, empthy concern and self-control, and has a significant positive correlation with Social anxiety. But implicit aggression has no significant correlation with perspective taking, empthy concern, self-control and Social anxiety. The correlation between explicit aggression and implicit aggression isn’t significant.The second part is the group training for violent juvenile criminals . The data of expicit aggression and implicit aggression before and after group training is collected employing survey and IAT. The result suggests that after group training, physical aggression and verbal aggression of explicit aggression have reduced significantly, and self-control, perspective taking and empthy concern have increased singnificantly, but the implicit aggression, anger, hostility, Novaco and social anxiety have no significant difference.

Posted in Psychology | Tagged , , | Comments Off

Harmonious Beauty of the Fiber Art and Architectural Space

Nowadays the fiber art takes the environment design the important constitution language, first should participate in the space and time environment moving positively creates, causes it to manifest the time participation the significance. The textile fiber artware should not be chaotic, random, the accidental stack, it must be undergoes the careful design, reasonable, with the construction space environment unified whole, namely one organic whole which coordinates mutually with between the construction space environment as well as each essential factor, conforms with the spatial rule the design. The fiber art while is participating in the space environment overall design positively, is having the special optimized role to the space environment, carries on using the textile fiber artware encircles gathers, the group to build and so on designs, may form or stress that certain special environment play to the construction space are adjusting and the improvement function.In modern science and technology rapidly expand today, people’s value idea and the esthetic consciousness has had the significant change. The people pursue diligently have the individuality display, the rich emotion room environment, hoped that compatible many kinds of has the intrinsic consciousness indoor environment design, from practices moderation respectively the different domain to the multi-dimensional development, demonstrates own unique contemporary spirit. But has equivocally, the abstract particular textile fiber artware is precisely the participation now the environment design suitable medium.

Posted in Art | Tagged , , | Comments Off

The Research on Lucein Goldman’s Genetic Structuralism Literature Sociology

The genetic structuralism literature sociology, initiated by Lucein Goldman, a French philosopher and literary theorist, is an important branch in the schools of twentieth century western literature sociology and has a unique position in the developing history of western literary theories. However, our home academic circles paid no enough attention to such an important school of literary theory, keeping less general and comprehensive hold on Goldman’s literary theory system. So this thesis, based on others’ achievements, aims to have certain breakthrough and innovations.Through the way of synchronic and diachronic study, this thesis will explore in turn its philosophical basis, theoretic category, cardinal principle, methodology, and features of Goldman’s genetic structuralism literature sociology, striving to present and restore the original features of his literary theory and reveal its theoretic value and contemporary significance. The fundamental viewpoint of my thesis is that built on the basis of dialectical “monism’, Goldman’s literary theory system, taking the unity of the subject and the object, and the combination of factual and value judgment as its foothold and starting point, the “significant structure” as central concept, puts forward the isomorphic theory of literary structure and Social one, as well as the dialectical methodology of ‘comprehension’ and “interpretation”. The theoretic value of Goldman’s genetic structuralism literature sociology is that it insists on the value standpoint of integrating the scientific spirit and humanistic one as a sort of literary theory; as a sort of criticism pattern, it applies operating method of unifying textual structure analysis and Social historical structure analysis and integrating the ‘comprehension’ and ‘interpretation”, thus it overcomes the ‘non-historization’ of formalistic criticism, and the trend of “non-textualization’ or “pan-textualization’ of Social historical analysis. To sum up, Goldman’s literary theory has realized the dialectical integration between tradition and modernity, demonstration and dialectic, scientism and humanism, and history and aesthetic. Therefore, Goldman’s genetic structuralism litefature sociology can not only become one pole in contemporary “multi-dimensional morphemic” literature sociology, but also provide mental sources and theoretic ones which are worth of highlighting for constructing contemporary literary theories with Chinese characteristics.

Posted in Literary Theory | Tagged , , , | Comments Off

A Study of the Status Quo of Yugur and Multi-nations in the SuNan Area

Yugur is one national minority of China, who has a scarce population and a long in time history, and is more distributed over the Sunan area of Gansu Province. It’s one of the special national minorities in Gansu Province. It’s as same as other national minorities of China, Yugur also has the own special peculiarity.Sunan is the multi-nations area, and the multi-nations are usually accompanied with national combination. Yugur, who also lived in the Sunan multi-nations area, is display the conditions of multi-nations in the aspect of national combinations about cultures, customs, faith, and etc.The article has set forth the history and status quo of multi-nations of Yugur, and the national combination from multi-nations, and the same or difference about livelihood and culture in the multi-nations .It’s shown the peaceful and friendly status quo of multi-nations of Yugur, and it’s forecasted the protracted nature and necessity of multi-nations of Yugur.

Posted in China History | Tagged , , | Comments Off

An Analysis of Jefferson’s Idea of the American West

Thomas Jefferson has far-reaching influence on west development and American society, and his series actions of performance have close connection with his idea of the west. Accordingly, this paper wants to make a research on Jefferson’s idea of the American west, and make proper comments on it.The thesis consists of four parts: preface, text, conclusion and appendix.It begins with a brief introduction, introducing the motivation that the author selects this topic to discuss and the current research of Sino-America academic communities. The main body is made up of four parts:Part one introduces the contents and expressions of Jefferson’s idea of the West, including territorial expansion, racial and religious assimilation .By analysis, we can reach the conclusion that idea of the West is an expansion in essence.Part two analyses the conditioning factors of Jefferson’s idea of the West from two respects, one focusing on background and the other on Jefferson’s personal experience. After the Independent Revolution, the potential threat of European colonization in American west and the desire of Americans to extensive space promote the formation of Jefferson’s idea of the West, while his experience and education affect idea of the West.Part three retraces the practice of idea of the West from three respects, such as Louisiana Purchase, Lewis-Clark expedition and the policy toward Indians, and then reveals the real motivation of Jefferson’s idea of the West, namely, establishes an Agricultural empire all over the North America.Part four summarizes the influence of Jefferson’s idea of the West: it promotes the process of westward expansion, accelerates the decline of Indian civilization and affects the change of sectional pattern in America.The conclusion sums up the whole paper, confirms the importance of it, and points out the necessity of deep research, such as, the decolonization in North America, its impact on the slavery and so on.

Posted in Geography | Tagged , , , | Comments Off